Luminex and antibody detection in kidney transplantation.
Preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies have a negative effect on kidney transplantation outcome with an increased rejection rate and reduction in survival. Posttransplantation production of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies is indicative of an active immune response and risk of transplantation rejection. For many years the primary technique for anti-HLA antibody detection was complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), which has been integrated by solid-phase assays as HLA antigen-coated bead methods (Luminex). This new technological approach has allowed identification of anti-HLA antibodies, not detectable using conventional CDC method, in patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Moreover, use of Luminex technology has enabled better definition of acceptable or unacceptable antigens favoring transplantation in highly immunized patients. However, there are still many unresolved issues, including the clinical relevance of antibodies detected with this system.