Cognitive-behavioral group therapy as an early intervention for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.
A randomized controlled design was used with a 1-yr follow-up. The purpose was to compare the effects of two early interventions, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention and a self-help information package, in patients with insomnia. In sum, 165 individuals seeking care for insomnia of 3-12 months duration were randomized to either a group receiving a CBT intervention or a group receiving a self-help information package. At the 1-yr follow-up, 136 participants had completed the entire study. At the 1-yr follow-up, the CBT group intervention was, compared with the control group, effective in producing reductions in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, negative daytime symptoms, as well as vital improvements in sleep (i.e. sleep onset latency, time awake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep quality, and sleep efficiency). In comparison with the control group, significantly more participants in the CBT group met criteria at the 1-yr follow-up for clinically meaningful improvements in sleep onset latency, time awake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency. A CBT group intervention may well be a viable early intervention for patients with insomnia in a wide range of health services.