Channel measurements for large antenna arrays
Equipping base stations (BSs) with very large antenna arrays is a promising way to increase the spectral and energy efficiency of mobile communication systems without the need for new cell sites. However, the prominently theoretical works on this topic are based on several crucial assumptions about the wireless channel which have not been sufficiently validated by measurements. In this paper, we report on an outdoor measurement campaign with a scalable virtual antenna array consisting of up to 112 elements. The large amount of acquired data allows us to study several important aspects of large-scale MIMO systems. For example, we partially confirm the theoretical results based on uncorrelated channels which predict that the channels at different positions become more and more orthogonal as the number of antennas grows. However, for the measured channels, the marginal gain of an additional antenna quickly diminishes. Nevertheless, our results indicate that most of the theoretical benefits of large-scale MIMO could be realized also over the measured channels.