Massive gravity, the elasticity of space-time and perturbations in the dark sector
We consider a class of modified gravity models where the terms added to the standard Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian are just a function of the metric only. For linearized perturbations around an isotropic space-time, this class of models is entirely specified by a rank 4 tensor that encodes possibly time-dependent masses for the gravitons. This tensor has the same symmetries as an elasticity tensor, suggesting an interpretation of massive gravity as an effective rigidity of space-time. If we choose a form for this tensor which is compatible with the symmetries of FRW and enforce full reparameterization invariance, then the only theory possible is a cosmological constant. However, in the case where the theory is only time translation invariant, the ghost-free massive gravity theory is equivalent to the elastic dark energy scenario with the extra Lorentz violating vector giving rise to 2 transverse and 1 longitudinal degrees of freedom, whereas when one demands spatial translation invariance one is left with scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term.