Electromagnetic mass splittings of the low lying hadrons and quark masses from 2+1 flavor lattice QCD+QED
Results are presented for the electromagnetic mass splittings of the low lying hadrons. These are used to determine the non-degenerate light quark masses. It is found that m_u=2.24(10)(34), m_d=4.65(15)(32), and $m_s=97.6(2.9)(5.5)$ MeV (MSbar scheme, 2 GeV scale). The first error is statistical and the second systematic. We find the lowest order electromagnetic splitting (m_pi+-m_pi0)_QED=3.38(23) MeV, the splittings including next-to-leading order, (m_pi+-m_pi0)_QED=4.50(23) MeV, (m_K+-m_K0)_QED=1.87(10) MeV, and the m_u != m_d contribution to the kaon mass difference, (m_K+-m_K0)_(m_u-m_d)=-5.840(96) MeV. All errors are statistical only, and the next-to-leading order pion splitting is only approximate; it does not contain all next-to-leading order contributions. We also computed the proton-neutron mass difference, including for the first time, QED interactions in a realistic 2+1 flavor calculation. We find $(m_p-m_n)_ QED=0.383(68)$ MeV, (m_p-m_n)_(m_u-m_d)=-2.51(14) MeV, and the total m_p-m_n=-2.13(16)(70) MeV, where the first error is statistical, and the second, part of the systematic error. We use domain wall fermions and the Iwasaki gauge action (gauge coupling beta=2.13). We use two lattice sizes, 16^3 and 24^3, to address finite volume effects. Non-compact QED is treated in the quenched approximation. We present new results for the electromagnetic low energy constants in SU(3) and SU(2) partially-quenched chiral perturbation theory to the next-to-leading order, obtained from fits to our data. Detailed analysis of systematic errors in our results and methods for improving them are discussed. Finally, new analytic results for SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R-plus-kaon chiral perturbation theory, including the one-loop logs proportional to alpha_em*m, are given.