Change and reciprocity in adolescent aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors and parental support and dysfunctional discipline
This study examined how the development of aggressive/rule-breaking behaviors (9â17 years) is related to the development of overreactive and warm parenting, and explored gender differences in development and interrelations. Externalizing was assessed using combined mother/father reports of the Child Behavior Checklist (N = 516). Overreactivity was assessed using self-reports of the Parenting Scale; warmth was measured using self-reports of the Parenting Practices Questionnaire. All constructs were assessed three times across 6 years. The interrelated development of externalizing and parenting was examined by cohort-sequential multigroup latent growth models. Timing of effects was investigated using multigroup cross-lagged models. The results from latent growth models suggest that boys and girls change similarly in the extent to which they show externalizing behaviors, and indicate that mothers and fathers show somewhat different parenting toward boys than girls. No gender differences were found for interrelations between externalizing and parenting. Initial levels of aggression were related to changes in overreactivity and warmth, and vice versa. Changes in externalizing were related to changes in parenting. Cross-lagged models showed that relations between overreactivity and aggression/rule breaking were reciprocal. Together, results from this study show that adolescent externalizing and parenting affect each other in important ways, regardless of the gender of the child or the parent.