Eliciting and modelling expertise for serious games in project management
Without achieving a clear understanding of the learning domain, it is difficult to develop a successful serious game that enables users to achieve the desired learning outcomes. Thus, the first step in serious game design is to establish an understanding of the particular learning domain, usually through consultation with domain experts. Whilst game design is inherently a creative process, we believe the capturing of the knowledge domain can be systematised and we present a structured approach to knowledge elicitation and representation as a basis for serious game design. We have adapted and extended the applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA) method and have combined it with additional knowledge representation frameworks. We explain how the outputs of this approach can inform the game mechanic and the development of non-player characters, and apply it to the design of a serious game aimed at reducing time-to-competence in soft project management skills for professionals working in corporate environments. A total of 26 domain experts from five different countries were involved in a two-stage interview process. The interviews yielded more than 300 task elements, and information about the cognition underlying the more challenging tasks. This data was incorporated into several representation frameworks and used to indicate features to be implemented in the game and the game mechanics of the supported features. âº We present a structured approach to knowledge elicitation and representation as a basis for serious game design. âº We adapt and extend the Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) method and combine it with additional knowledge representation frameworks. âº We explain how the outputs can inform the game design. âº We apply this approach to the design of a serious game aimed at reducing time-to-competence in soft project management skills. âº 26 interviews yielded data that was incorporated into the representation frameworks and used to indicate features to be implemented.