ParEGO: a hybrid algorithm with on-line landscape approximation for expensive multiobjective optimization problems
This paper concerns multiobjective optimization in scenarios where each solution evaluation is financially and/or temporally expensive. We make use of nine relatively low-dimensional, nonpathological, real-valued functions, such as arise in many applications, and assess the performance of two algorithms after just 100 and 250 (or 260) function evaluations. The results show that NSGA-II, a popular multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, performs well compared with random search, even within the restricted number of evaluations used. A significantly better performance (particularly, in the worst case) is, however, achieved on our test set by an algorithm proposed herein-ParEGO-which is an extension of the single-objective efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm of Jones et al. ParEGO uses a design-of-experiments inspired initialization procedure and learns a Gaussian processes model of the search landscape, which is updated after every function evaluation. Overall, ParEGO exhibits a promising performance for multiobjective optimization problems where evaluations are expensive or otherwise restricted in number.