Biotin deficiency and biotin excess: Effects on the female reproductive system
Biotin deficiency and biotin excess have both been found to affect reproduction and cause teratogenic effects. In the reproductive tract, however, the effects of biotin have not been well established yet. We investigated the effects of varying biotin content diets on the oestrus cycle, ovarian morphology, estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and the uterine mRNA abundance of their nuclear receptors, as well as on the activity of the estradiol-degrading group of enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver. Three-week-old female BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a biotin-deficient, a biotin-control, or a biotin-supplemented diet (0, 7.2 or 400 Î¼mol of free biotin/kg diet, respectively) over a period of nine weeks. Striking effects were observed in the biotin-deficient group: mice showed arrested estrous cycle on the day of diestrus and changes in ovary morphology. Estradiol serum concentration increased 49.2% in biotin-deficient mice compared to the control group, while the enzymatic activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2B2 increased (P < 0.05). The mRNA abundance of nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors decreased in the biotin-deficient mice. In the biotin-supplemented group we found that, in spite of a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of primary and Graafian follicles and in CYP1A2 activities, mice exhibited 105.4% higher serum estradiol concentration than the control group. No changes in the expression of the nuclear receptors were observed. No significant differences were observed in serum progesterone among the groups. Our results indicate that both the deficiency and the excess of biotin have significant effects on the female mouse reproductive system.