The Globalization of Technology in Emerging Markets: A Gravity Model on the Determinants of International Patent Collaborations
International technological collaborations (ITCs) and face-to-face interactions are an important vehicle of knowledge diffusion. This paper analyzes ITCs among USPTO patents’ inventors in eleven emerging economies and seven advanced countries (1990–2004) and a novel database on companies’ country of origin. Technological proximity and sharing a common language are key drivers of ITCs. When the applicant’s ownership is in the emerging country ITCs depend positively upon transport and communication costs (geographical distance and longitude) and negatively upon the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Stronger IPRs positively affect ITCs from subsidiaries of multinational firms.