Asteroseismology of Solar-Type and Red-Giant Stars
We are entering a golden era for stellar physics driven by satellite and telescope observations of unprecedented quality and scope. New insights on stellar evolution and stellar interiors physics are being made possible by asteroseismology, the study of stars by the observation of natural, resonant oscillations. Asteroseismology is proving to be particularly significant for the study of solar-type and red-giant stars. These stars show rich spectra of solar-like oscillations, which are excited and intrinsically damped by turbulence in the outermost layers of the convective envelopes. In this review we discuss the current state of the field, with a particular emphasis on recent advances provided by the Kepler and CoRoT space missions and the wider significance to astronomy of the results from asteroseismology, such as stellar populations studies and exoplanet studies.