Integrated Quantum Photonics
This paper reviews recent advances in integrated waveguide circuits, lithographically fabricated for quantum optics. With the increase in complexity of realizable quantum architectures, the need for stability and high quality nonclassical interference within large optical circuits has become a matter of concern in modern quantum optics. Using integrated waveguide structures, we demonstrate a high performance platform from which to further develop quantum technologies and experimental quantum physics using single photons. We review the performance of directional couplers in Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments, together with inherently stable interferometers with controlled phase shifts for quantum state preparation, manipulation, and measurement as well as demonstrating the first on-chip quantum metrology experiments. These fundamental components of optical quantum circuits are used together to construct integrated linear optical realizations of two-photon quantum controlled logic gates. The high quality quantum mechanical performance observed at the single photon level signifies their central role in future optical quantum technologies.