Global approaches for telling time: Omics and the Arabidopsis circadian clock
The circadian clock is an endogenous timer that anticipates and synchronizes biological processes to the environment. Traditional genetic approaches identified the underlying principles and genetic components, but new discoveries have been greatly impeded by the embedded redundancies that confer necessary robustness to the clock architecture. To overcome this, global (omic) techniques have provided a new depth of information about the Arabidopsis clock. Our understanding of the factors, regulation, and mechanistic connectivity between clock genes and with output processes has substantially broadened through genomic (cDNA libraries, yeast one-hybrid, protein binding microarrays, and ChIP-seq), transcriptomic (microarrays, RNA-seq), proteomic (mass spectrometry and chemical libraries), and metabolomic (mass spectrometry) approaches. This evolution in research will undoubtedly enhance our understanding of how the circadian clock optimizes growth and fitness. âº Global approaches have provided new depth of information about the Arabidopsis circadian clock. âº Omic technologies including gene expression profiling, yeast-based assays, ChIP-seq, and mass spectrometry have made important contributions. âº Additional global studies will provide further insight into how the circadian clock confers fitness and optimal growth.