Hot topics in urological health economics. A mini review.
Urological diseases are becoming a major public health problem. In fact, they increasingly weigh on the economy of a country due to the high direct costs and the consequent significant loss of productivity. Prostate cancer represents 11% of the costs for the treatment of all cancers in the United States with $8 billion and a cost per-patient from diagnosis to death of $81,658. Instead bladder cancer has the higher costs per-patient in terms of medical care, from diagnosis until death (U.S. $ 96,553). In Italy, in a reference hospital, the average costs of non muscle-invasive forms treated with endoscopic resection (TURB) and infiltrating forms treated with radical cystectomy are approximately Euro 2242.20 and Euro 6860 respectively, but they increase due to the follow-up and the ancillary treatments. In the field of functional disease, in the U.S. the average annual expenditure per capita for incontinence, including inpatient and outpatient services is $1382. While for patients who had undergone surgery the average total spending rose to $3620. For overactive bladder the total cost in the United States is estimated at 12.02 billion U.S. dollars, with $9.17 billion allocated to the community costs and $ 2.85 billion for institutional costs. However, further pharmacoeconomic studies are required to better understand the net economic impact of any alternative strategies to those actually present. Stone disease is a highly prevalent and costly condition for which United States total health care expenditures, in the year 2000, were estimated to be almost $ 2.1 billion. Treatment of nephrolithiasis depends on stone size and location, but typically involves a surgical procedure such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) or open stone surgery with an average expenditure per procedure of $2295, $1425, $3624, $2916 respectively.