A Ladder Of Citizen Participation
Abstract The heated controversy over ?citizen participation,? ?citizen control?, and ?maximum feasible involvement of the poor,? has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered using examples from three federal social programs: urban renewal, anti-poverty, and Model Cities. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens' power in determining the plan and/or program.