The geometry and motion of reaction-diffusion waves on closed two-dimensional manifolds
Chemical or biological systems modelled by reaction diffusion (R.D.) equations which support simple one-dimensional travelling waves (oscillatory or otherwise) may be expected to produce intricate two or three-dimensional spatial patterns, either stationary or subject to certain motion. Such structures have been observed experimentally. Asymptotic considerations applied to a general class of such systems lead to fundamental restrictions on the existence and geometrical form of possible structures. As a consequence of the geometrical setting, it is a straightforward matter to consider the propagation of waves on closed two-dimensional manifolds. We derive a fundamental equation for R.D. wave propagation on surfaces and discuss its significance. We consider the existence and propagation of rotationally symmetric and double spiral waves on the sphere and on the torus.