Learning-to-learn strategies as a basis for effective lifelong learning
Learning-to-learn skills are essential for effective lifelong learning to develop over the entire lifespan. These skills, which consist of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies, largely have been neglected in analyses of issues surrounding lifelong learning and in policy development. This article draws particularly upon the work of Weinstein, Meyer, Schraw and other cognitive psychologists to outline some of the knowledge and skills required and some of the educational implications for their development from a human developmental psychology perspective. Much of the initial work in establishing these skills needs to lie with schools for reasons of access and equity. However, since mastery of cognitive and metacognitive skills is not likely to be fully achieved by the end of secondary schooling, with metacognitive skills in particular only likely to reach fuller development through work experience, there are important implications for educators at further and higher education levels.