Laminar analysis of visually evoked activity in the primary visual cortex.
Studying the laminar pattern of neural activity is crucial for understanding the processing of neural signals in the cerebral cortex. We measured neural population activity [multiunit spike activity (MUA) and local field potential, LFP] in Macaque primary visual cortex (V1) in response to drifting grating stimuli. Sustained visually driven MUA was at an approximately constant level across cortical depth in V1. However, sustained, visually driven, local field potential power, which was concentrated in the γ-band (20-60 Hz), was greatest at the cortical depth corresponding to cortico-cortical output layers 2, 3, and 4B. γ-band power also tends to be more sustained in the output layers. Overall, cortico-cortical output layers accounted for 67% of total γ-band activity in V1, whereas 56% of total spikes evoked by drifting gratings were from layers 2, 3, and 4B. The high-resolution layer specificity of γ-band power, the laminar distribution of MUA and γ-band activity, and their dynamics imply that neural activity in V1 is generated by laminar-specific mechanisms. In particular, visual responses of MUA and γ-band activity in cortico-cortical output layers 2, 3, and 4B seem to be strongly influenced by laminar-specific recurrent circuitry and/or feedback.