A meta-analysis reporting effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients without heart failure.
Objectives The goal of the study was to assess the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the composite of cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, and on all-cause death, new-onset heart failure (HF), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) in high-risk patients without HF. Background ACE-Is reduce CV events in high-risk patients without HF whereas the effects of ARBs are less certain. Methods Twenty-six randomized trials comparing ARBs or ACE-Is versus placebo in 108,212 patients without HF were collected in a meta-analysis and analyzed for the risk of the composite outcome, all-cause death, new-onset HF, and new-onset DM. Results ACE-Is significantly reduced the risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio [OR]: 0.830 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.744 to 0.927]; p = 0.001), MI (OR: 0.811 [95% CI: 0.748 to 0.879]; p < 0.001), stroke (OR: 0.796 [95% CI: 0.682 to 0.928]; p < 0.004), all-cause death (OR: 0.908 [95% CI: 0.845 to 0.975]; p = 0.008), new-onset HF (OR: 0.789 [95% CI: 0.686 to 0.908]; p = 0.001), and new-onset DM (OR: 0.851 [95% CI: 0.749 to 0.965]; p < 0.012). ARBs significantly reduced the risk of the composite outcome (OR: 0.920 [95% CI: 0.869 to 0.975], p = 0.005), stroke (OR: 0.900 [95% CI: 0.830 to 0.977], p = 0.011), and new-onset DM (OR: 0.855 [95% CI: 0.798 to 0.915]; p < 0.001). Conclusions In patients at high CV risk without HF, ACE-Is and ARBs reduced the risk of the composite outcome of CV death, MI, and stroke. ACE-Is also reduced the risk of all-cause death, new-onset HF, and new-onset DM. Thus, ARBs represent a valuable option to reduce CV mortality and morbidity in patients in whom ACE-Is cannot be used.