Diabetes Management in the Nursing Home
Purpose Diabetes mellitus is a disease with debilitating potential. Growing numbers of elderly individuals are being admitted to under-resourced nursing homes with this often complicated, time-intensive, and costly diagnosis. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to determine the trends in diabetes management in nursing homes over the last decade including the use of clinical practice guidelines and the evaluation of management outcomes. Methods Ten medical, nursing, psychological, legal, and business databases were searched for articles written in English between 2000 and 2010 addressing diabetes management in nursing homes or long-term care settings. They were analyzed to determine diabetes management characteristics, use of clinical practice guidelines, resident outcomes associated with different regimens, and implications for improved management and outcomes. Results A total of 20 studies from 6 countries, primarily the United States, including both qualitative and quantitative designs and a combined sample of 779 707 residents, met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies described frequencies of various management practices and found rare clinical practice guideline adherence. Conclusion A severe lack of research relating management practices to health and quality-of-life outcomes was evident as was a lack of the voice of the resident in determining the diabetes regimen. Clear implications were found for improvement in diabetes management education for residents, families, and all health care providers in this setting.