Serum and dietary vitamin D and cardiovascular disease risk in elderly men: A prospective cohort study
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent research suggests that low vitamin D may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively evaluated the association of dietary plus supplemental vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH) vitamin D with CVD incidence in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Vitamin D intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and self-reported supplemental intake in 3094 men (mean age 76.4 years). From a subset of this population, we measured 25(OH) vitamin D in 813 men. Median 25(OH) vitamin D was 25.3 ng/mL. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, there were 472 CVD cases, including 371 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 101 from cerebrovascular attack (CVA). In the 25(OH) vitamin D sub-cohort, there were 140 cases of CVD including 115 from CHD and 25 from CVA. We used a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for CVD by vitamin D quartile. After adjusting for age, season, and standard CVD risk factors, the lowest quartile of 25(OH) vitamin D (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.69-2.03) and vitamin D intake (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.04) were not significantly associated with CVD incidence, compared to the highest vitamin D quartiles. When 25(OH) vitamin D was further analyzed by sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL), insufficiency (≥15-29.9 ng/mL), and deficiency (<15 ng/mL), vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with CVD incidence compared to sufficiency (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.65-2.77). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH) vitamin D were not associated with CVD risk.