Quantum memories and error correction
Quantum states are inherently fragile, making their storage a major concern for many practical applications and experimental tests of quantum mechanics. The field of quantum memories is concerned with how this storage may be achieved, covering everything from the physical systems best suited to the task to the abstract methods that may be used to increase performance. This review concerns itself with the latter, giving an overview of error correction and self-correction, and how they may be used to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation. The planar code is presented as a concrete example, both as a quantum memory and as a framework for quantum computation.