Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of titanium by Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulses in air
The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium upon irradiation with linearly polarized femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (τ=30 fs, λ=790 nm) in an air environment is studied experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, the dependence on the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses per irradiation spot has been analyzed. For a moderate number of laser pulses (N<1000) and at fluences between ∼0.09 and ∼0.35 J/cm2, predominantly low-spatial-frequency-LIPSS with periods between 400 nm and 800 nm are observed perpendicular to the polarization. In a narrow fluence range between 0.05 and 0.09 J/cm2, high-spatial-frequency-LIPSS with sub-100-nm spatial periods (∼λ/10) can be generated with an orientation parallel to the polarization (N=50). These experimental results are complemented by calculations based on a theoretical LIPSS model and compared to the present literature.