pKa based protonation states and microspecies for protein–ligand docking
In this paper we present our reworked approach to generate ligand protonation states with our structure preparation tool SPORES (Structure PrOtonation and REcognition System). SPORES can be used for the preprocessing of proteins and protein–ligand complexes as e.g. taken from the Protein Data Bank as well as for the setup of 3D ligand databases. It automatically assigns atom and bond types, generates different protonation, tautomeric states as well as different stereoisomers. In the revised version, pKa calculations with the ChemAxon software MARVIN are used either to determine the likeliness of a combinatorial generated protonation state or to determine the titrable atoms used in the combinatorial approach. Additionally, the MARVIN software is used to predict microspecies distributions of ligand molecules. Docking studies were performed with our recently introduced program PLANTS (Protein–Ligand ANT System) on all protomers resulting from the three different selection methods for the well established CCDC/ASTEX clean data set demonstrating the usefulness of especially the latter approach.