Establishment of tumor-specific copy number alterations from plasma DNA of patients with cancer
With the increasing number of available predictive biomarkers clinical management of cancer is becoming increasingly reliant on the accurate serial monitoring of tumor genotypes. We tested whether tumor-specific copy number changes can be inferred from the peripheral blood of patients with cancer. To this end we determined the plasma DNA size distribution and the fraction of mutated plasma DNA fragments with deep sequencing and an ultrasensitive mutation-detection method, i.e. the BEAMing assay. When analyzing the plasma DNA of 32 patients with stage IV colorectal carcinoma (CRC), we found that a subset of the patients (34.4%) had a biphasic size distribution of plasma DNA fragments that was associated with increased circulating tumor cell (CTC) numbers and elevated concentration of mutated plasma DNA fragments. In these cases we were able to establish genome-wide tumor-specific copy number alterations directly from plasma DNA. Thus we could analyze the current copy number status of the tumor genome, which was in some cases many years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. An unexpected finding was that not all patients with progressive metastatic disease appear to release tumor DNA into the circulation in measurable quantities. When we analyzed plasma DNA from 35 patients with metastatic breast cancer we made similar observations suggesting that our approach may be applicable to a variety of tumor entities. This is the first description of such a biphasic distribution in a surprisingly high proportion of cancer patients which may have important implications for tumor diagnosis and monitoring. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.