Starch synthesis in the cereal endosperm
The pathway of starch synthesis in the cereal endosperm is unique, and requires enzyme isoforms that are not present in other cereal tissues or non-cereal plants. Recent information on the functions of individual enzyme isoforms has provided insight into how the linear chains and branch linkages in cereal starch are synthesized and distributed. Genetic analyses have led to the formulation of models for the roles of de-branching enzymes in cereal starch production, and reveal pleiotropic effects that suggest that certain enzymes may be physically associated. For the first time, tools for global analyses of starch biosynthesis are available for cereal crops, and are heralded by the draft sequence of the rice genome.