The synthesis of organic carbonates from carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an easily available, renewable carbon resource, which has the advantages of being non-toxic, abundant and economical. CO2 is also attractive as an environmentally friendly chemical reagent, and is especially useful as a phosgene substitute. CO2 is an "anhydrous carbonic acid" that rapidly reacts with basic compounds. Nucleophilic attack at CO2 conveniently produces carboxyl and carbamoyl groups. Further reactions of these species with electrophiles lead to the formation of organic carbonates and carbamates. The present article deals with the synthetic technologies leading to organic carbonates using CO2 as a raw material.