Closed-loop insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes.
Advances in diabetes technology have led to significant improvements in the quality of life and care received by individuals with diabetes. Despite this, achieving tight glycemic control through intensive insulin therapy and modern insulin regimens is challenging because of the barrier of hypoglycemia, the most feared complication of insulin therapy as reported by patients, caregivers, and physicians. This article outlines the individual components of the closed-loop system together with the existing clinical evidence. The artificial pancreas prototypes currently used in clinical studies are reviewed as well as obstacles and limitations facing the technology.