Emission analysis of a compressed natural gas directinjection engine with a homogenous mixture
In an era in which environmental pollution and depletion of world oil reserves are of major concern, emissions produced by automotive vehicles need to be controlled and reduced. An ideal solution is to switch to a cleaner fuel such as natural gas, which generates cleaner emissions. In addition, control over the in-cylinder air-fuel mixture can be best achieved through a direct-injection mechanism, which can further improve combustion efficiency. This need for cleaner automobiles provides the motivation for this paper’s examination of the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations to analyze the concentrations of the exhaust gases produced by a compressed natural gas engine with a direct-fuel-injection system. In this work, a compressed natural gas direct-injection engine has been designed and developed through a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to provide an insight into complex in-cylinder behavior. The emissions analyzed in this study were carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), i.e. the main pollutants produced by natural gas combustion. Based on a stoichiometric mixture, the concentrations of CO and NO were computed using the dissociation of carbon dioxide and the extended Zeldovich mechanism. CO2 was calculated using a mass balance of the species involved in the combustion process. The simulation results were then compared with the experimental data generated by a single-cylinder research engine test rig. A good agreement was obtained with the experimental data for the engine speeds considered for all emissions concentrations.