Six strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolated in Japan and their molecular phylogeny.
Five strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were isolated from five Japanese hemophilia patients. Two isolates, HIV-1[GUN-1] and HIV-1[GUN-2], were from brother patients with hemophilia B and the other three isolates, HIV-1[GUN-3], HIV-1[GUN-4], and HIV-1[GUN-5], were from hemophilia A patients. Another HIV-1 strain, HIV-1[GUN-6], was isolated from a Canadian male homosexual with AIDS. The restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of the proviral genomes of these six HIV-1 strains revealed that they were apparently different from each other. The phylogenetic trees constructed using restriction maps and nucleotide sequences were quite similar, indicating that phylogenetic analyses of Japanese HIV-1 isolates can be done using restriction maps of the proviruses. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they were more closely related to HIV-1s which had been reported to be isolated from homosexual patients in the United States than those isolated from African patients. In particular, GUN-1 and GUN-2 isolates were on the branch of a San Francisco isolate, ARV2, while GUN-5 and GUN-6 isolates were on the branch of HTLV-IIIB-related isolates.