Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz
Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete–plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology. âº Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete effector proteins that enable parasitic infection. âº 3D structures of five RXLR effectors have been elucidated in the last year. âº Novel insights into how effectors subvert host cells have been reached this last year.