The c-di-GMP recognition mechanism of the PilZ domain of bacterial cellulose synthase subunit A.
In some Proteobacteria and Firmicutes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Xanthomonas campestris, and Clostridium difficile, cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is known to regulate cellular processes, including motility, biofilm formation, and virulence, as a second messenger. Cellulose production in Acetobacter xylinum, a model organism of cellulose biosynthesis, is also varied by cellular c-di-GMP level. In cellulose-synthesizing bacteria, a terminal complex localized in the cell membrane synthesizes cellulose and regulates the production of cellulose sensed by c-di-GMP. Although previous studies indicated that the PilZ domain conserved in cellulose synthase subunit A (CeSA) was part of a receptor for c-di-GMP, the recognition mechanism by PilZ domain of CeSA remains unclear. In the present study, we studied the interaction between c-di-GMP and the PilZ domain of CeSA from a structural viewpoint. First, we solved the crystal structure of the PilZ domain of CeSA from A. xylinum (AxCeSA-PilZ) at 2.1Å resolution. Then, comparison of the sequence and structure of AxCeSA-PilZ to those of known structures of PilZ, such as VCA0042, PP4397, and PA4608, indicated the involvement of Lys573 and Arg643 of AxCeSA-PilZ in the recognition of c-di-GMP besides the RxxxR motif. Finally, the binding characteristics of c-di-GMP to AxCeSA-PilZ and mutants were determined with isothermal titration calorimetry, indicating that the residues corresponding to Lys573 and Arg643 in AxCeSA-PilZ generally contribute to the binding of c-di-GMP to PilZ. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.