High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach–Zehnder modulators with doping optimization
We demonstrate a high-speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with low insertion loss, based on the carrier depletion effect in a lateral PN junction. A 1.9 dB on-chip insertion loss and a VπLπ < 2 V·cm were achieved in an MZM with a 750 μm-long phase shifter by properly choosing the doping concentration and precisely locating the junction. High-speed modulations up to 45–60 Gbit/s have been demonstrated with an additional 1.6 dB optical loss, indicating a total insertion loss of 3.5 dB. A high extinction ratio of 7.5 dB was also realized at the bit rate of 50 Gbit/s with an acceptable insertion loss of 6.5 dB.