Multiple Microalterations Detected at High Frequency in Oral Cancer
The development of array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) at tiling-path resolution has enabled the detection of gene-sized segmental DNA copy number gains and losses. Here, we present the first application of whole genome tiling-path array CGH to archival clinical specimens for the detailed analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). We describe the genomes of 20 OSCCs as well as a selection of matched normal DNA in unprecedented detail. Examination of their whole genome profiles enabled the identification of alterations ranging in size from whole-arm, segmental, to gene size alterations. Tiling-path resolution enabled the detection of many more alterations within each tumor than previously reported, many of which include narrow alterations found to be frequent events among the 20 OSCCs. We report the presence of several novel frequent submegabase alterations, such as the 0.58 Mb gain at 5p15.2 containing triple functional domain (TRIO), detected in 45% of cases. We also report the first coamplification of two gene clusters, by fine-mapping the precise base pair boundaries of the high-level amplification at 11q22.2-22.3 containing both matrix metalloproteinase and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2 (BIRC) gene clusters. These results show the large improvement in detection sensitivity and resolution compared with genome interval marker arrays and the utility of tiling resolution array CGH for the detection of both submegabase and single copy gains and losses in cancer gene discovery.