Temporal coherence of acoustic signals in a fluctuating ocean
Temporal coherence of acoustic signals propagating in a fluctuating ocean is important for many practical applications and has been studied intensively experimentally. However, only a few theoretical formulations of temporal coherence exist. In the present paper, a three-dimensional (3D) modal theory of sound propagation in a fluctuating ocean is used to derive closed-form equations for the spatial–temporal coherence function of a broadband signal. The theory is applied to the analysis of the temporal coherence of a monochromatic signal propagating in an ocean perturbed by linear internal waves obeying the Garrett–Munk (G–M) spectral model. In particular, the temporal coherence function is calculated for propagation ranges up to 104 km and for five sound frequencies: 12, 25, 50, 75, and 100 Hz. Then, the dependence of the coherence time (i.e., the value of the time lag at which the temporal coherence decreases by a factor of e) on range and frequency is studied. The results obtained are compared with experimental data and predictions of the path-integral theory.