Global boundary flattening transforms for acoustic propagation under rough sea surfaces
This paper introduces a conformal transform of an acoustic domain under a one-dimensional, rough sea surface onto a domain with a flat top. This non-perturbative transform can include many hundreds of wavelengths of the surface variation. The resulting two-dimensional, flat-topped domain allows direct application of any existing, acoustic propagation model of the Helmholtz or wave equation using transformed sound speeds. Such a transform-model combination applies where the surface particle velocity is much slower than sound speed, such that the boundary motion can be neglected. Once the acoustic field is computed, the bijective (one-to-one and onto) mapping permits the field interpolation in terms of the original coordinates. The Bergström method for inverse Riemann maps determines the transform by iterated solution of an integral equation for a surface matching term. Rough sea surface forward scatter test cases provide verification of the method using a particular parabolic equation model of the Helmholtz equation.