Nocardiosis: updates and clinical overview.
Nocardia, a gram-positive bacillus with the microscopic appearance of branching hyphae, can produce considerable disease in the appropriate host. The taxonomy of Nocardia continues to evolve; more than 50 species have been described. Early recognition and effective therapy are imperative to achieve successful outcomes. Although nocardiosis typically occurs in patients with cell-mediated immunosuppressive conditions, infection may occasionally develop in immunocompetent patients as well. This review addresses the microbiology of Nocardia, risk factors for infection, clinical presentations, and management strategies. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.