Review and discussion of tubular biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of diabetic nephropathy.
The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy has tremendously increased with the relentless rise in the incidence of diabetes over the last couple decades. Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and it invariably leads to an end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In an effort to delay the onset of ESRD systematic screening and appropriate management are needed to evaluate the progression of renal damage in diabetic nephropathy. The reliability of current tests in predicting the onset, progression and response to various regimens for diabetic nephropathy is still under debate; and it has engendered a search for more sensitive and specific urinary biomarkers, especially those reflective of tubular dysfunctions. It is well-known that there is a good correlation between the degree of damage to the tubulo-interstitial compartment and the deterioration of renal functions. In view of this, the utility of urinary biomarkers, reflective of tubular injury, reported in the literature is discussed in this brief review.