Renal dysfunction in heart failure.
Renal dysfunction is a common, important comorbidity in patients with both chronic and acute heart failure (HF). Chronic kidney disease and worsening renal function (WRF) are associated with worse outcomes, but our understanding of the complex bidirectional interactions between the heart and kidney remains poor. When addressing these interactions, one must consider the impact of intrinsic renal disease resulting from medical comorbidities on HF outcomes. WRF may result from any number of important processes. Understanding the role of each of these factors and their interplay are essential in understanding how to improve outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction and HF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.