Diabetes management in the kidney patient.
Hyperglycemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients presents difficult challenges, partly due to the complexity involved in treating these patients, and partly due to lack of data supporting benefits of tight glycemic control. While hyperglycemia is central to the pathogenesis and management of diabetes, hypoglycemia and glucose variability also contribute to outcomes. Multiple agents with different mechanisms of action are now available; some can lower glucose levels without the risk of hypoglycemia. This article reviews metabolic changes present in kidney impairment/failure, current views about glycemic goals, and treatment options for the diabetic patient with CKD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.