Tolerating increases in the serum creatinine following aggressive treatment of chronic kidney disease, hypertension and proteinuria: pre-renal success.
Blood pressure (BP) reduction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI), commonly leads to an initial decrease in glomerular filtration rate. The current clinical guideline, based on studies with single RASIs, is to tolerate an increase in the serum creatinine only up to 30%. This guideline has aptly guided CKD care for over a decade, but should be updated in the contemporary context of more aggressive RASI and diuretic use. This study is a retrospective review of 48 mostly African-American patients with CKD treated with multiple and/or high-dose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition and diuretics, targeting both low BP and reduction of urine protein. RASI was not reduced in response to initial increases in serum creatinine greater than 30%. A clinically well-tolerated increase in serum creatinine over 30% during the first year occurred in 41% of the patients. Treatment was unaltered, and target goals for BP and urine protein were typically achieved. After the point of maximal serum creatinine in the first year, these patients had minimal progression of disease over the next 6 years, with a long-term estimated glomerular filtration rate slope of only -0.52 ml/min/year/1.73 m(2). Only 25% progressed to end-stage renal disease or death. The 30% limitation to initial increases in the serum creatinine still pertains for single RASI at usual doses. However, favorable long-term outcomes suggest that initial increases over 30% should be tolerated in the context of dual goal-directed, more aggressive RASI and diuretic use. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.