Omega-3 fatty acids ameliorate proteinuria but not renal function in IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
The effects of ω-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on renal function and proteinuria in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) are not fully understood. Thus, we conducted an up-to-date meta-analysis of the currently available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to validate the effects of O3FA in IgAN. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials using an extended search strategy to identify RCTs that assessed the treatment efficacy of O3FA in IgAN. The dose-effect relationships of O3FA on renal function and proteinuria were also determined. Five RCTs with a total of 233 patients were included in our analysis. Our results demonstrated that while O3FA does not have any beneficial effects in preserving renal function in IgAN, proteinuria was significantly reduced. Furthermore, patients who received a high dose of O3FA (>3 g/day) did not differ from those who received a low dose of O3FA (≤3 g/day) in renal function or proteinuria. The currently available evidence suggests that O3FA has no benefit in preserving renal function, but can ameliorate proteinuria in IgAN. However, the effects of O3FA on proteinuria are not dose dependent. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.