KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes and CKD: 2012 Update.
The 2012 update of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is intended to assist the practitioner caring for patients with diabetes and CKD. Substantial high-quality new evidence has emerged since the original 2007 KDOQI guideline that could significantly change recommendations for clinical practice. As such, revisions of prior guidelines are offered that specifically address hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) targets, treatments to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment in diabetic patients with and without albuminuria. Treatment approaches are addressed in each section and the stated guideline recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and specific suggestions are provided for future research. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.