Delirium in the intensive care unit: a review.
Delirium occurs commonly in both general medical and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, with prevalence rates of up to 80% reported. A common expression of acute brain dysfunction, it is related to wide-ranging untoward outcomes such as prolonged hospitalization, increased costs, higher mortality, and, potentially long-term cognitive impairment. Different risk factors are associated with delirium, including sedation, which has implications for patient management. Multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium, developed in the non-ICU setting, can be adapted to critically ill patients with the purpose of reducing its incidence. Future studies should evaluate target interventions to prevent delirium in the ICU. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.