Color constancy by asymmetric color matching with real objects in three-dimensional scenes
Color matching experiments use, in general, stimuli that are poor representations of the natural world. The aim of this work was to compare the degree of color constancy for a range of illuminant pairs using a new matching technique that uses both real objects and three-dimensional (3-D) real scenes. In the experiment, observers viewed a 3-D real scene through a large beamsplitter that projects on the right-hand side of the scene (match scene), the virtual image of a 3-D object (match object) such it appeared part of the scene. On the left-hand side of the scene (test scene), observers viewed a symmetrical scene containing a test object identical to the match object. Test and match objects were both surrounded by the same reflectances with identical spatial arrangement. The illuminant on the test scene had always a correlated color temperature of 25,000 K. The illuminant on the match scene could be any of seven different illuminants with correlated color temperatures in the range 25,000 Kâ4000 K. In each trial, the observers, who were instructed to perform surface color matches, adjusted the illuminant on the match object. Constancy indices were very high (0.81â0.93), varied with the color of the match object, and increased with the extent of the illuminant change. Observer's mismatches, however, were independent of the extent of the illuminant change.