Prevalence and potential risk factors for organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in Boophilus microplus ticks on cattle ranches from the State of Yucatan, Mexico.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to investigate the association between management risk factors and the prevalence of organophosphate (OP) and synthetic pyrethroid (SP) resistance in Boophilus microplus ticks in Yucatan State, Mexico. Ninety-eight cattle ranches were randomly selected and a sample of 20-30 engorged female B. microplus ticks was collected at each. The modified larvae packet test was used to detect OP and SP tick resistance. A questionnaire was administered on each ranch. For risk factors, four reference types of response were used: Tuxpan (resistant to coumaphos, chlorfenvinphos and diazinon), Parkhurst (resistant to flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), Lamington (resistant to flumethrin in absence of deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and Marmor (resistant to flumethrin and cypermethrin in absence of flumethrin). A primary screening was performed using 2 x 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with p < or = 0.20 were analyzed by a logistic regression. The prevalence of B. microplus resistance to OP and SP groups were 83.70% and 66.32%, respectively. The prevalence for a single chemical compound was: diazinon (80.60%), coumaphos (45.90%), chlorfenvinphos (35.70%), flumethrin (63.28%), deltamethrin (61.22%), and cypermethrin (59.18%). The prevalence type of response was: Tuxpan (34.16%), Parkhurst (58.16%), Lamington (4.08%), and Marmor (4.08%). The use of a different tick control program was the risk management factor associated with the Parkhurst type of response. It is concluded that the prevalence of cattle ranches with B. microplus resistant to OPs and SPs in Yucatan, Mexico, is a current problem, and a treatment interval of > or =6 times/year and use of a tick control program (macrocyclic lactones and pasture burn) different from standard recommended programs are risk factors associated with the Parkhurst type of response.