Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn Study
Purpose Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between (type of) dairy intake and CVD mortality and all-cause mortality in a Dutch population. Methods We examined the relationship between dairy intake and CVD mortality and all-cause mortality in 1956 participants of the Hoorn Study (aged 50–75 years), free of CVD at baseline. Hazard ratios with 95 % CIs were obtained for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality per standard deviation (SD) of the mean increase in dairy intake, with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, education, total energy intake, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary intakes. Results During 12.4 years of follow-up, 403 participants died, of whom 116 had a fatal CVD event. Overall dairy intake was not associated with CVD mortality or all-cause mortality. Each SD increase in high-fat dairy intake was associated with a 32 % higher risk of CVD mortality (95 % CI; 7–61 %). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study, the intake of high-fat dairy products was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality.