Flow cytometric assessment of cytotype distributions within local populations of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) around Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan
Phragmites australis (Poaceae) is a clonal perennial that is an important component of wetland ecosystems worldwide. Using flow cytometry, we examined the cytotype distributions within five populations of P. australis located in the vicinity of Lake Biwa. As in previous reports, two ploidy levels, octoploid (2n = 8x = 96) and decaploid (2n = 10x = 120), were identified, which are assumed to be the main cytotypes around the lake. The coexistence of two cytotypes was detected in four of the five populations, suggesting the relatively common occurrence of mixed ploidy levels in the populations around Lake Biwa. Although intermingled cytotype distributions were observed in some populations, the 9x cytotype, that is, the expected outcome of inter-cytotype crosses, was not observed, indicating limited gene flow between the two cytotypes.