Active Galactic Nuclei - the Physics of Individual Sources and the Cosmic History of Formation and Evolution
In this paper we give a brief review of the astrophysics of active galactic nuclei (AGN). After a general introduction motivating the study of AGNs, we discuss our present understanding of the inner workings of the central engines, most likely accreting black holes with masses between a million and ten billion solar masses. We highlight recent results concerning the jets (collimated outflows) of AGNs derived from X-ray observations (Chandra) of kpc-scale jets and gamma-ray observations of AGNs (Fermi, Cherenkov telescopes) with jets closely aligned with the lines of sight (blazars), and discuss the interpretation of these observations. Subsequently, we summarize our knowledge about the cosmic history of AGN formation and evolution. We conclude with a description of upcoming observational opportunities.