Color M-mode sonography for evaluation of fetal arrhythmias.
Fetal arrhythmias can be challenging to diagnose, even with the use of 2-dimensional, M-mode, and spectral Doppler sonography of myocardial or blood flow signals to determine the rate, synchrony, and timing. Color Doppler sonography combined with M-mode echocardiography uses the myocardium and blood flow to provide a robust evaluation of cardiac rhythm. Limited descriptions of color M-mode sonography have been published. This article describes the systematic application of the color M-mode technique using 4 specific clinical case examples and contrasts this technique with more conventional approaches to fetal arrhythmia diagnosis.